The Bounty Teacher's Guide

Lesson Conclusion

Conclusion to Lesson One

The study of genocide, from the origin of the word to the struggle to pass an historic yet imperfect U.N. convention making genocide an international crime, faces new challenges when applied to specific moments in human social history. We hope teachers and students will use the material presented in Lesson One to guide them as they learn in Lessons Two, Three, and Four about bounty acts and proclamations and the organization of paid killing squads by colonial and U.S. authorities and private citizens to remove Indigenous people from the land to which they have belonged for thousands of years.

All Work Cited in this Lesson

¹ Rebecca Cardinal Sockbeson, “Waponahki Anti-Colonial Resistance in North American Colonial Contexts: Some Preliminary Notes on the Coloniality of Meta-Dispossession,” 32, in Dip Kapoor, ed. Against Colonization and Rural Dispossession: Local Resistance in South and East Asia, the Pacific and Africa (London: Zed Books, 2017).
² Rebecca Cardinal Sockbeson, “Indigenous Research Methodology: Gluskabe’s Encounters with Epistemicide,” Postcolonial Directions in Education 6, no. 1 (2017):1-27.
³ Rebecca Cardinal Sockbeson, “Honored and Thriving: The Squaw Law and Eradication of Offensive State Place-Names,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 40, no. 2 (2016), 123-138.
⁴ Monita K. Bell, “A Truer Sense of Our National Identity: Historian Ned Blackhawk explains why we must do a better job learning and teaching about the history of Indigenous slavery,” Teaching Tolerance 63 (Fall 2019): 38-40.
⁵ Dina Gilio-Whitaker, “Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,” Beacon Broadside Press, November 8, 2018,
⁷ Colin Woodard, “Donna Loring, retired tribal affairs adviser to Gov. Mills, says a sovereignty deal can be reached,” Portland Press Herald, February 17, 2021,
Raphael Lemkin, Totally Unofficial: The Autobiography of Raphael Lemkin, ed. Donna-Lee Frieze (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013), 3.
 Lemkin, Totally Unofficial, 1.
¹⁰ Philippe Sands, East West Street: On the Origins of “Genocide” and “Crimes Against Humanity” (New York: Knopf, 2016), 146.
¹¹  Sands, East West Street, 150.
¹² The Trial of Soghomon Tehlirian,
¹³ Jay Winter, “Prophet Without Honors,” Chronicle of Higher Education, June 03, 2013,
¹⁴ Raphael Lemkin, “Acts Constituting a General (Transnational) Danger Considered as Offences Against the Law of Nations,”
¹⁵ Lemkin, Totally Unofficial, 23-24.
¹⁶ James Waller, Confronting Evil: Engaging Our Responsibility to Prevent Genocide (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 12.
¹⁷ Lemkin, Totally Unofficial, xii.
¹⁸ Raphael Lemkin Papers, 1931-1947. Raphael Lemkin Collection, Columbia University Libraries Archival Collections, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, New York, NY,
¹⁹ Sands, East West Street, 168.
²⁰ Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s broadcast to the world about the meeting with President Roosevelt, August 24, 1941, British Library of Information,
²¹ Sands, East West Street, 179.
²² Waller, Confronting Evil, 13.
²³ Raphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress (New York: Howard Fertig, 1973), 79.
²⁴ Sands, East West Street, 185.
²⁵ Waller, Confronting Evil, 14.
²⁶  Ibid, 27.
²⁷  Ibid, 25.
²⁸  Samantha Power, “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 2002), 61, 63.
²⁹ Winter, “Prophet Without Honors.”
³⁰ Waller, Confronting Evil, 28-30.
³¹ Ibid.
³² Michael A. McDonnell and A. Dirk Moses, “Raphael Lemkin as Historian of Genocide in the Americas,” Journal of Genocide Research, 7, no. 4 (December 2005): 501-529.
³³ Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, 79.
³⁴ Ibid, 82.
³⁵ Ibid, 84.
³⁶ Ibid, 92.
³⁷ Granted, in the case of the Rwandan Genocide, colonization of Rwanda by Europeans set up conditions for genocide, but it did not occur during the period of colonial occupation (insofar as Hutus were not foreigners engaged in conquering or in what McDonnell and Moses term “occupation and settlement”).
³⁸ Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, 92.
³⁹ Herbert Kelman, “Violence Without Moral Restraint: Reflections on Dehumanization of Victims and Victimizers,” Journal of Social Issues 29, no. 4 (1973): 25-61.
⁴⁰ Rebecca Cardinal Sockbeson, “Cipenuk Red Hope: Weaving Policy Toward Decolonization & Beyond," Ph.D. thesis, University of Alberta, 2011, 85-86; for more information about a major federal investigation into the U.S. government’s Indian boarding school policy, see the outstanding resources provided by The National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition:
⁴¹ Dawnland,
⁴² Beyond the Mandate: Continuing the Conversation (Hermon: Maine Wabanaki-State Child Welfare Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2015), 8.
⁴³ Benjamin Madley, An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), 3.
⁴⁴ Michael F. Magliari, “Naming the Crime: Genocide, Extermination, or Ethnic Cleansing?” reviewer of Anderson, “Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: The Crime That Should Haunt America” H-AmIndian (December, 2016),
⁴⁵ Alex Alvarez, Native America and the Question of Genocide (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014), 33.
⁴⁶ Waller, Confronting Evil, 28-30.
⁴⁷ Waller, Confronting Evil, 28-30.
⁴⁸ Waller, Confronting Evil, 28-30.
⁴⁹ Waller, Confronting Evil, 28-30.

Continue to the Next Lesson

Lesson Two: Scalp-Bounty Proclamations